Close this search box.
Institute of Clinical Hypnosis and Related Sciences Logo

Navigating the Psychological Defense Mechanism of Dissociation

Table of Contents

Introduction: The World Through a Fog

Emily stood at the edge of a crowd, the sounds and sights around her blending into a distant hum. She watched the scene unfold as if through a thick fog, feeling removed, detached from the laughter and chatter.

Moments earlier, an argument had set her heart racing, and now, as if someone hit a switch, Emily found herself retreating to an inner sanctuary, the world around her growing fainter.

Her experience paints a vivid picture of ‘Dissociation,’ a psychological defense mechanism where someone temporarily disconnects from reality, often in response to trauma or extreme stress. Dissociation can be a refuge, but it can also cast a veil over the richness of lived experiences.

Understanding the Defense Mechanism of Dissociation

Mechanism of Dissociation


Dissociation in psychological terms refers to a disconnection between a person’s thoughts, memories, feelings, actions, or sense of identity. It’s like the mind has a series of rooms, and during dissociation, the doors between those rooms close, blocking the flow of mental processes that usually bind a person’s sense of self together.


This mental detachment from reality typically serves as a defense against overwhelming stress or trauma. The unconscious mind steps in, almost like a circuit breaker during an overload, to protect the individual from fully experiencing the trauma at hand. It’s an automatic response, often outside the person’s control, serving to minimize or moderate the impact of distress.


  • Daydreaming during a tedious task or stressful event can be a mild form of dissociation, where you disconnect from the immediate surroundings.
  • After a traumatic accident, a person might not recall the event or even feel as if it happened to someone else.
  • Dissociative identity disorder (DID), formerly known as multiple personality disorder, where individuals may experience two or more distinct identities or personalities taking control at different times.

These are instances where dissociation acts as a psychological escape hatch from situations that might otherwise seem unbearable. 

Theoretical Perspective behind Defense Mechanism of Dissociation

The concept of dissociation has been recognized for over a century, with Pierre Janet, a pioneering psychologist, among the first to study it systematically. Janet’s work laid the groundwork for understanding dissociation, particularly its relation to trauma and hysteria. Sigmund Freud further explored the concept, integrating it into his psychoanalytic theory and recognizing its potential as a defense mechanism.

Types of Dissociation

Dissociation manifests in various forms, including:

  • Dissociative Amnesia: An inability to recall important personal information, typically related to traumatic events.
  • Dissociative Fugue: Temporary, unexpected travels away from home or work, with amnesia about one’s past or confusion about identity.
  • Depersonalization/Derealization: Feeling detached from oneself (depersonalization) or experiencing the world as unreal (derealization).
  • Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID): Formerly multiple personality disorder, where two or more distinct identities or personality states alternately control a person’s behaviour.

Defense Mechanism of Dissociation and Related Concepts

Defense Mechanism of Dissociation
  • Trauma and PTSD: Dissociation is often linked to experiencing or witnessing traumatic events and is a common symptom of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).
  • Cognitive Dissonance: Although different from dissociation, cognitive dissonance involves discomfort from holding conflicting beliefs or attitudes, potentially leading to dissociative tendencies as a way to reduce mental discomfort.

Recognizing the history and types of dissociation enables a deeper understanding of this mechanism and its role in coping with psychological distress.

The Impact of Defense Mechanism of Dissociation

Dissociation, while serving as a mental sanctuary, can profoundly affect people’s lives, shaping how they interact with the world and perceive themselves.

How Dissociation Helps

  • Crisis Coping: In the face of immediate trauma, dissociation can be a lifesaver, allowing someone to endure intense stress by mentally stepping away from the pain.
  • Emotional Regulation: It provides a temporary escape from overwhelming emotions, giving the person a respite until they are better equipped to deal with their feelings.

Problems Dissociation Can Create

  • Disrupted Life: Frequent dissociation can lead to gaps in memory and disjointed experiences, causing difficulties in personal and professional relationships.
  • Avoidance of Healing: By continually dissociating from painful memories or emotions, individuals may inadvertently prolong their suffering and hinder their healing process.
  • Dual Realities: Living in a state of depersonalization or derealization can create a sense of detachment from life, making authentic connections and experiences feel distant or impossible.

Examples in Various Areas

At Home: Someone who dissociates might find it hard to maintain stable family relationships, as their loved ones struggle to understand their disengagement.

In School or Work: Dissociative episodes can impact performance, attention, and presence, affecting academic and career success.

Personal Well-Being: Chronic dissociation can lead to a diminished sense of identity and a lack of investment in self-care or personal growth.

Dissociation in Therapy: A Therapist’s Perspective

Within the realm of therapy, dissociation is a complex and multifaceted issue that therapists often navigate with their clients.

Client Challenges

Clients might seek therapy due to the disjointed feelings that come with dissociation, such as losing time, relationship difficulties, or a pervasive sense of unreality. They often find it challenging to connect their dissociative experiences with the emotions or trauma underlying them. For instance, a client who has undergone significant trauma might experience dissociative episodes that impair their ability to function in daily life yet may not recognize these episodes as a psychological defense.

The Role of Therapy

The therapeutic process aims to create a safe and supportive environment where clients can explore the sources of their dissociation. Therapists work to help clients establish a connection between their symptoms and the unresolved issues that trigger them. Through therapy, clients can start to integrate their dissociated experiences, emotions, and memories into a coherent sense of self.

Addressing Dissociation Indirectly

Because direct confrontation can sometimes trigger increased resistance or deeper dissociation, therapists often adopt an indirect approach. This approach allows clients to gradually become aware of their dissociation and its effects.

Therapists might gently guide clients to notice patterns in their behaviour or times when they check out, using these observations as a starting point for deeper exploration.

In therapy, identifying and working through the defense mechanism of dissociation involves careful and sensitive navigation, where the goal is to help clients acknowledge and reconcile divided aspects of their experience.

Overcoming Dissociation with Cognitive Hypnotic Psychotherapy: A Guide for Therapists


Cognitive Hypnotic Psychotherapy (CHP) offers a therapeutic pathway for assisting clients who deal with dissociation.

CHP is a holistic therapeutic approach that marries the analytical strengths of cognitive methods with the subconscious dialogue facilitated by hypnosis. This combination allows for a comprehensive exploration of the client’s inner experience, with a focus on reconciling fragmented memories and perceptions.

CHP Techniques to Address Dissociation

  • Delayering Processes: These methods assist in peeling back the layers to reveal underlying emotional conflicts that contribute to dissociative symptoms.
  • Hypnotic Exploration: By guiding clients into a hypnotic state, therapists can safely explore past traumas and repressed memories that may be driving dissociation.
  • Cognitive Integration: Helps clients in restructuring thought patterns to achieve a more cohesive sense of reality and self-identity.
  • Mindfulness Strategies: Encouraging clients to practice mindfulness can increase their presence in the moment, thereby reducing dissociative episodes.
  • Narrative Reconstruction: Assists clients in restructuring their personal narrative to include dissociated experiences, facilitating a more integrated identity.

Through CHP, clients can gain a deeper understanding of how their minds have been coping through dissociation and begin the process of reconnecting with themselves and their experiences.

Conclusion: Reconnecting the Fragmented Self

Dissociation, a sophisticated psychological defense mechanism, often sits at the crossroads of protection and impairment—a way for the mind to shield itself from emotional overwhelm, yet potentially leading to a fragmented existence. It is within the therapeutic embrace of Cognitive Hypnotic Psychotherapy that individuals find a bridge back to wholeness.

Therapy seeks not just to address the symptoms of dissociation but to reconcile the deeper story they tell. Through a tapestry woven from the varied techniques of CHP – each thread representing a tactic for understanding and integration – clients rediscover a sense of continuity within themselves. No longer must they retreat into the recesses of detachment; instead, they are encouraged to engage fully with their narrative, both past and present.