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Defense Mechanism of Introjection: Healing Internalized Beliefs

Table of Contents

Introduction: The Weight of a Parent’s Words

Have you ever felt like you’re not being true to yourself? Like the thoughts and opinions you express aren’t really yours, but someone else’s? If so, you might be experiencing something called introjection. Don’t worry, it’s more common than you think, and I’m here to shed some light on this fascinating psychological phenomenon.

Let me start with a little story to set the stage. Imagine Sarah, a bright student who always aims to please. She’s giving a class presentation, and everything seems perfect – her delivery is flawless, her points are well-researched. But deep down, she can’t shake the feeling that these aren’t truly her ideas. Instead, they’re echoes of her father’s voice, like a puppeteer controlling her beliefs.

As the applause fills the room, Sarah’s nagging doubt gets drowned out. But what she’s experiencing is a classic case of introjection – the unconscious process of adopting the ideas, emotions, or attitudes of others (often authority figures like parents or leaders) as your own.

What is the Psychological Defense Mechanism of Introjection

Defense Mechanism of Introjection


Introjection is a psychological phenomenon where a person internalizes the beliefs, attitudes, or feelings of others – often significant figures like parents, leaders, or cultural icons – making them part of their own psyche. It’s a subconscious process that helps shape our personal identity and worldview.


Introjection typically occurs as a way for the individual to cope with anxiety, conflict, or uncertainty. It often involves the unconscious adoption of others’ viewpoints to gain their approval, align with a group, or maintain a sense of security. The role of the unconscious is critical; it harbors these absorbed notions, sometimes without the person’s conscious awareness, influencing their behaviour and decisions.


A child who introjects their parent’s perfectionistic standards may relentlessly strive for flawless performance, feeling as though these expectations are self-imposed. An employee might adopt the company’s aggressive sales tactics with unquestioning zeal, confusing the company’s ambitions with their values.

In relationships, a partner may subsume their own desires, mirroring only what they believe their significant other wishes from them, losing touch with their authentic self in the process.

Theoretical Perspective on the Defense Mechanism of Introjection

The concept of introjection originates from the pioneering work of Sigmund Freud and was further developed by his contemporaries, including psychoanalysts Sandor Ferenczi and Melanie Klein. It arose from the necessity to understand how external influences become entrenched within the individual’s internal world, shaping their personality and behaviour from early childhood through to adulthood.

Types of Introjection:

Introjection can manifest in various forms, such as:

  • Normative Introjection: Where societal norms and values are internalized.
  • Interpersonal Introjection: Involving the assimilation of traits or beliefs from close family members or partners.
  • Ideological Introjection: Where an individual internalizes group ideologies, such as political or religious beliefs.

Introjection and Related Concepts:

  • Identification: Often associated with introjection, identification involves taking on characteristics of another person, typically one who is admired.
  • Incorporation: A term closely related to introjection, which refers to metaphorically ‘ingesting’ aspects of others into oneself.
  • Projection: The inverse of introjection, projection involves casting out one’s own undesirable feelings or traits onto others.

The Impact of Introjection

Impact of Introjection

Introjection can significantly affect various areas of an individual’s life, from personal development to social interactions. Here’s an exploration of how the defense mechanism of introjection can be both helpful and problematic:

Benefits of Introjection

  • Guidance and Stability: Introjection can provide individuals with a ready-made framework of beliefs and behaviours, offering guidance and stability, particularly during childhood and other formative years.
  • Social Integration: By internalizing societal values and norms, introjection helps individuals fit in and function within their community, promoting social cohesion.
  • Identity Formation: It assists in the development of a personal identity, as introjected traits and beliefs can become integral parts of who we are.

Problems Created by Introjection

  • Loss of Authenticity: Overreliance on introjected beliefs and values can lead to a loss of personal authenticity, causing individuals to live according to standards that are not genuinely their own.
  • Internal Conflict: When introjected beliefs clash with personal experiences or insights, it can result in internal conflict and confusion about one’s self-concept.
  • Suppressing True Self: Introjection can suppress an individual’s true desires and opinions, leading to dissatisfaction and potential psychological distress.
  • Maladaptive Coping: In some cases, introjection can become a maladaptive coping mechanism, preventing individuals from critically assessing and modifying harmful or outdated beliefs and behaviours.

Examples of Defense Mechanism of Introjection in Different Areas

  • In Families: A child may introject a parent’s anxieties and prejudices, carrying these into adulthood even when they no longer serve a purpose or align with the individual’s true feelings.
  • In Relationships: A partner might subconsciously adopt their significant other’s dislikes or mannerisms, gradually losing touch with their preferences and identity.
  • At Work: Employees may internalize their organization’s culture and goals to such an extent that they neglect their work-life balance and personal values.

Introjection in Therapy: A Therapist’s Perspective

Therapy often brings encounters with clients who display traits and behaviours shaped by introjection. Recognizing and addressing these can be critical for therapeutic progress.

Client Challenges

Therapists may observe clients who struggle with introjected beliefs that contribute to negative self-image or problematic behavioural patterns. For instance, an individual who has internalized a parent’s critical voice might exhibit self-doubt and harsh self-judgment, hindering their ability to appreciate their worth and achievements.

Addressing Introjection in Therapy

The therapeutic process aims to help clients differentiate between their authentic selves and the introjected content. It involves exploring the roots of their beliefs and attitudes, understanding the role these introjections have played in their lives, and assessing their current relevance.

Therapists guide clients through the delayering of these internalized voices and expectations to reach a core understanding of their true selves. They provide a supportive environment for clients to safely question and revisit the introjected beliefs, encouraging them to express their thoughts and emotions without fear of judgment.

By identifying introjection, therapists can better understand their clients’ worldviews and the underlying causes of their issues. It’s important for therapists to approach the topic with sensitivity, as directly challenging these internalized aspects can sometimes trigger resistance or discomfort.

Overcoming Introjection with Cognitive Hypnotic Psychotherapy: A Guide for Therapists

One powerful approach to help clients dismantle reaction formation is Cognitive Hypnotic Psychotherapy (CHP). This integrative model uses hypnosis to uncover and address unconscious patterns driving behaviours like reaction formation.

Techniques to Address Introjection

  • Cognitive Delayering: This process involves peeling back the layers of introjected beliefs to uncover the client’s authentic thoughts and feelings. Therapists encourage clients to critically examine the origins and validity of their internalized beliefs.
  • Hypnotic Regression: Through guided hypnosis, clients can revisit earlier life experiences that may have contributed to the formation of introjected content. This technique allows clients to understand and process these experiences from their current perspective.
  • Reframing and Re-evaluating: Therapists guide clients in reframing introjected beliefs, helping them to adopt viewpoints that are more in line with their values and experiences.
  • Assertiveness Training: This helps clients develop the confidence to express their true thoughts and feelings, rather than conforming to the introjected perspectives of others.
  • Relaxation and Visualization: These techniques are used to reduce anxiety associated with challenging deeply-held introjections, creating mental space for new, self-affirmed beliefs and attitudes to emerge.

By utilizing CHP, therapists can facilitate a transformative journey for their clients, enabling them to distinguish between externally imposed influences and their innate values. This promotes a stronger sense of self and greater autonomy in clients’ decision-making processes.

Conclusion: Embracing Authenticity Beyond Introjected Influences

The journey of dissecting and overcoming introjection is pivotal for individuals striving to live authentically. The process not only liberates them from unconsciously adopted beliefs and behaviours but also facilitates a reconnection with their true self.

Cognitive Hypnotic Psychotherapy stands as a beacon for this transformation, providing a structured path that delicately balances cognitive exploration with the deep emotional work necessary to untangle the web of introjections.

The final result is not just relief from the inner conflicts sparked by introjection but also a clearer sense of identity, a boost in self-esteem, and a more fulfilling life experience anchored in personal truth and integrity.